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Battery

What is Battery ?

A battery in a device that stores energy for later use. The word battery is limited to an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electricity, by use of a galvanic cell. Batteries consist of one or more galvanic cells. A battery is an electrical storage device. Batteries do not generate electricity, they store it. As chemicals in the battery change (Charge or Discharge) , electrical energy is stored or released. In rechargeable batteries this process can be repeated many times. Batteries are not 100% efficient - some energy is lost as heat and chemical reactions when charging and discharging.

How Many Classes Of Batteries Are There?

Basically there are two classes of batteries

1. Primary Batteries:
Primary Batteries are those which can be used only once and cannot be recharged for reuse
Eg: Dry cell used for radio and Torch .

2. Secondary Batteries:
Secondary batteries are those which can be recharged to its original condition for a limited number of cycles.
Eg: Lead acid Batteries, VRLA batteries, Nicd etc.

What Is Lead Acid Battery?

Lead Acid Batery consist of Lead oxide (PbO2) as positive and spongy lead (Pb) as negative with electrolyte Acid (diluted H2SO4) and generates 2.4V per Cell.

How Are Batteries Rated?

The most common battery rating is the AMP-HOUR RATING. This is a unit of measurement for battery capacity, obtained by multiplying a current flow in amperes by the time in hours of discharge. (Example: A battery which delivers 5 amperes for 20 hours delivers 5 amperes times 20 hours, or 100 ampere-hours.) Manufacturers use different discharge periods to yield a different Amp-Hr. Rating for the same capacity batteries, therefore, the Amp-Hr.

What is Voltage?

It is the units of force or pressure of electric current or unit of measuring electrical pressure, all batteries is rated in volts DC (Direct Current). The voltage of a battery depends on the number of cells connected in series each cell of lead acid battery has 2 volt nominally.

What is Electrolyte?

In a lead-acid battery, the electrolyte is sulfuric acid diluted with water. It is a conductor that supplies water and sulfate for the electrochemical reaction:

What is Specific Gravity?

The weight of the sulfuric acid electrolyte compared to water (Sp Gr of water is 1). The Specific gravity is a measure of state of health of a battery.

  1. Absorb relatively small power surges.
  2. Smooth out noisy power sources.
  3. Continue to provide power to equipment during line sags.
  4. Provide power for some time after a blackout has occurred.

In addition, some UPS or Online UPS/software combinations provide the following functions:

  1. Automatic shutdown of equipment during long power outages.
  2. Monitoring and logging of the status of the power supply.
  3. Display the Voltage/Current draw of the equipment.
  4. Restart equipment after a long power outage.
  5. Display the voltage currently on the line.
  6. Provide alarms on certain error conditions.
  7. Provide short circuit protection.

What is Cutoff Voltage of Discharge or end voltage?

Terminal voltage of a battery at which discharge should be finished or stopped. Generally 10.5 volt is considered as safe end voltage for lead acid battery.

What is a WATT?

A WATT is the unit for measuring electrical power, i.e., the rate of doing work, in moving electrons by, or against, an electrical potential. Formula: Watts = Amperes x Volts.

What Is Battery Cycle Life?

One cycle of a battery is a discharge from full charge to full discharge and a return to full charge again. The total number of cycles a battery can perform before failure is called its Cycle Life.

What Is The Shelf Life Of A Battery?

All batteries by virtue of nature will have some self-discharge. If the capacity loss due to self-discharge is not compensated for by recharging, the battery capacity may become unrecoverable and battery will not give expected useful life or normal cycle life.

What Is A Starting Or SLI Or Automotive Battery ?

These batteries are designed in such a way that it can support Cranking application. These batteries provide a very high current typically 2 to 3 times its rated capacity for small duration to start an vehicle engine. The purpose of these batteries is to provide high current to start an engine and then vehicle runs with the power generated from the Dynamo / Alternator.

What Should I Consider When Buying A Automotive Battery?

SIZE:  What are the dimensions of your original battery or OEM fitment?
POWER:  What is the AH rating, CCA and RC required to power your vehicle?
WARRANTY:  Batteries are backed by a warranty package. Choose what is right for your vehicle's needs.

What Is The Reserve Capacity Rating (RC)?

The reserve capacity of a battery is defined as the number of minutes that it can support a 25 ampere load at 80°F until its terminal voltage drops to 1.75 volts per cell or 10.50 volts for a 12V battery. Thus a 12V battery that has a reserve capacity rating of 100 signifies that it can be discharged at 25 amps for 100 minutes at 80°F before its voltage drops to 10.75 volts.

What Is The CCA Rating?

The cold cranking ampere (CCA) rating refers to the number of amperes a battery can support for 30 seconds at a temperature of 0°F until the battery voltage drops to 1.20 volts per cell, or 7.20 volts for a 12V battery. Thus, a 12V battery that carries a rating of 600 CCA tells us that the battery will provide 600 amperes for 30 seconds at 0°F before the voltage falls to 7.20V.

Can I Increase The Life Of My Battery?

Keeping your battery well maintained is the BEST way to extend the life of your battery. Maintaining the correct electrolyte levels, tightening loose hold-down clamps and terminals, and removing corrosion are normally the ONLY preventative maintenance required for a battery.

What Are The Most Common Causes Of BATTERY FAILURES?

      A.  Using an undersized battery.
      B.  Loss of electrolyte due to heat or overcharging
      C.  Overcharging with voltages greater than 15.1 volts
      D.  Undercharging
      E.  Old age
      F.  Vibration
      G.  Deep discharges (leaving your lights on)
      H.  Using tap water
      I.  Corrosion
      J.  Freezing, and
      K.  Overheating.

What is Sulfation?

Growth of lead sulfate crystals in Lead-Acid batteries which inhibits or resist current flow. Sulfation is caused by storage at low state of charge or when the battery has been left for a considerable time in a discharged condition.

What is the normal charge rate for a battery?

Naturally, batteries of different capacities require different charge rates. Generally, a battery should be charged at a slow charge rate of 1/10 its rated capacity. . For example a 100 amp/hour battery (100 @ 20 hour rate) will require an initial startup rate of 10 amps to be supplied by the selected battery charger or UPS.

What's The Difference Between A Car Battery And A Deep Cycle Battery?

The difference between car batteries and deep cycle batteries is the way their lead plates are structured and designed. The plates determine how the battery functions. Deep cycle batteries have thick, solid lead plates meant to handle deep discharge so the battery can provide power for a long time but at low amps. Car batteries have thin plates that provide greater surface area to generate big amps for short periods for cranking application.

What is Industrial Battery ?

Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) is designed to provide a constant output power to the UPS. These are totally maintenance free and don't have free acid, thus can be used in any position. It is designed using Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) or GEL technology and can sustain deep cycle application. These batteries emit very less gas fumes during usage and hence can be used in living area. These batteries are sensitive for High temperature, High/low charging, hence to be used with precaution and maintain the ambient temperature and charging parameters should be under the specified limits.

What is Inverter Battery ?

These batteries have been constructed to provide longer backup and quick re charging, it contains free acid and needs to be maintained properly. The plates are thicker when compared to automotive batteries and capable of deep cycle application. Application of these batteries is for Inverter/Home UPS.

What is Tubular Batteries ?

These batteries are similar to Invert type except to that the Positive plate is in Tube construction. These batteries offer high life when compared to other types of batteries. Application of these batteries depends on its construction and generally used in Inverter and UPS.

What is VRLA Battery?

is strictly a safety feature in case the rate of hydrogen evolution becomes dangerously high.

Explanation Application and Type of battery to be used?

Although a number of basic materials are used to produce all types of lead-acid batteries are same, significant differences exist among battery types in both materials and design. Batteries are built to satisfy specific application-based demands. Each particular duty cycle prescribes its own design, materials and methods of construction. Refer to below table for selecting right battery for right application.

 

Application

Recommended Battery

Vehicle starting, Generators

Automotive batteries

Inverter for Lights, Fans, TV, Electrical goods

Inverter Battery

UPS for Computer, Printer, Electronic devices for emergency backup, environment friendly and maintenance free

VRLA / SLA Batteries

UPS for Computer, Printer for Long backup and installed in separate room and low maintenance

Tubular Batteries

Can I use tap water for topping up batteries? if not Yes, why?

Tap water or any other water available in nature cannot be used for topping up of battery. DM water or De-ionized water is the most common or suggested type of water suitable for topping-up. The mineral content in tap water or natural available water may be minimal in some water, but  the gassing effects from charging coupled with evaporation, may leave behind mineral contaminates in the electrolyte solution in higher level. As a result, the minerals will have a cumulative effect inside the battery. Depending on the type of impurity, the physical characteristics as well as the performance of the battery may be affected and fail premature.

Do I ever need to add acid to my battery?

Under normal operating conditions, you never need to add acid. For a standard auto or inverter or tubular battery, only distilled, deionized water should be added to achieve the recommended levels (Max-Min).

What is Inverter or Home UPS?

power for running electronic equipment and appliances. It basically inverts the DC power to AC power suitable to power electronic/electrical equipment.

What is UPS or UN Interrupted Power supply?

UPS is similar to Inverter except to the fact that the Input voltage is monitored and controlled to some extent (using filter circuit, Voltage regulator) and then fed to the output. The change over time is fast between 0 to 15 milliseconds.

What is the basic Difference between Inverter and UPS?

Basic and major difference between Inverter and UPS is Inverter takes long time between changeover from Mains to Battery, typically the changeover time will be up to 500 milliseconds Where as the changeover in UPS will be very fast between 0 to 15 millisecond.

What can cause a new battery to fail soon after installation?

If a new battery becomes unserviceable within a few days or weeks after its installation it may be due one or more of the following reasons:
1. A faulty charging system.
2. A short circuit in the electrical system.
3. Battery terminals are dirty or not properly connected.
4. Excessive ignition off drains or high parasitic drains.
5. Electrical capacity or AH of the battery is insufficient for size of the vehicle.

What is an Equalization Charge & Why it is Necessary?

Individual batteries and individual cells within lead acid batteries react differently in field, over time battery performance will drop as differences become more pronounced. In any cyclic application, a series of batteries will always need to be equalized from time to time in order to ensure that the battery cells remain at the same voltage throughout its life time equalization charge is an essential exercise. Equalization charge is performed when the range of voltages across the battery bank's batteries is over 0.30 volts or at least once in every 3 month. An equalization charge must only be performed on vented (not sealed or VRLA) wet or flooded lead acid batteries. Equalization is done by allowing the charging voltage to rise above normal finish or TOC (generally >=16 V) while allowing a considerable constant current for prolong period to the batteries in order to allow the weaker cell to draw more current.

What is "cycle use" and "standby use"?

- direct power source: It can provide the power supply to power tools, portable electronic products. It can also be used for cycling charging and discharging usage such as electronics motorbike or vacuum cleaner. "Standby Use" - back up power: Mainly used for emergency power to avoid future damage that may be caused by a sudden power outage

Are batteries dangerous for the environment? How much of it can be recycled?

Batteries are made of lead, sulphuric acid solution and polyprolene box. This is why once the batteries can no longer be used; they become dangerous waste, risky for the environment. However, with an effective recycling system the battery's polyproloene box and the lead parts can be fully recycled. Although it is also possible to recycle sulphuric acid, it is mostly neutralised..

Where do I recycle my old batteries?

Old batteries may be returned to the battery retailer, automotive service station, a battery manufacturer or other authorized collection centers for recycling.

Does overcharging cause damage?

Overcharging occurs when the total capacity removed has been replaced by recharging and the battery remains on charge. This overcharging creates excessive heat that can cause the battery plates within the cells to buckle and shed their active material. The battery will react to the overcharge by producing an excessive amount of hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are the result of the breakdown of the water molecules within the electrolyte. The water that has been displaced by overcharging can be replaced in a serviceable (non-sealed) battery, but, in the maintenance-free sealed batteries, permanent capacity loss will result.

How do i jump start my car?


Turn off all unnecessary accessories and lights on both cars.

Start the car with the good battery and let it run for at least two or three minutes at fast idle BEFORE attempting to start the disabled car.

Connect the POSITIVE . (Usually marked with red colour or +symbol) terminal on the disabled battery to the POSITIVE terminal on the good battery.

Connect the NEGATIVE (Usually marked with black colour or – symbol) terminal on the good battery to a clean, unpainted area on the ENGINE BLOCK on the disabled car.

Let the good car to continue to run for five minutes or more.

This will allow the dead battery to receive some charge and to warm its electrolyte.

Be sure that cables are clear of fan blades, belts and other moving parts of both engines

Start the disabled car and allow running at fast idle.

Disconnect the jumper cables in the reverse order, starting with the ENGINE BLOCK on the disable car.

How long will my battery last?

Battery is a perishable product. The lifespan of a battery will vary considerably with how it is used, how it is maintained and charged, temperature, and other factors. That batteries have a finite life is due to occurrence of the unwanted chemical or physical changes to, or the loss of, the active materials of which they are made. Otherwise they would last indefinitely. These changes are usually irreversible and they affect the electrical performance of the cell. Battery life can usually only be extended by preventing or reducing the cause of the unwanted parasitic chemical effects which occur in the cells.