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Clear your queries and gain knowledge on the best of batteries and power supplies. Browse through these tips and equip yourself to the maximum.

 

Inverter

What is Inverter ?

An inverter takes DC power (battery for example) and converts it into AC "household" power for running electronic equipment and appliances.
It basically inverts the DC power to AC power suitable to power electronic/electrical equipment.  The change over time between mains fail to Inverter mode will be high up to 500 milliseconds.

What is UPS or Un Interrupted Power supply?

UPS is similar to Inverter except to the fact that the Input voltage is monitored and controlled to some extent (using filter circuit, Voltage regulator) and then fed to the output. The change over time is fast between 0 to 15 milliseconds.

What is the basic Difference between Inverter and UPS?

Basic and major difference between Inverter and UPS is Inverter takes long time between changeover from Mains to Battery, typically the changeover time will be up to 500 milliseconds Where as the changeover in UPS will be very fast between 0 to 15 millisecond.

What are the different classes of UPS available in market?

In General following classes of UPS are available in the present market
OFFLINE UPS The OFFLINE UPS supplies (or routes) the incoming mains supply directly through to the output usually through a relay contact. Some high frequency noise filtering and surge suppression may be included in this path. The UPS switches on its inverter as soon as mains supply failure is detected and simultaneously switches the output relay to the inverter side to supply battery sourced power to the load. This transition involves a delay on account of the time to reliably detect mains failure and switch over a relay, and the output is broken for this period (usually for 2 to 12msec ).
LINE INTERACTIVE UPS An LINE INTERACTIVE design is in-fact a combination of OFFLINE & ONLINE, in which the inverter plays a dual role of charging the battery when mains supply is present as well as regulating the output voltage and working as a normal inverter in absence of mains supply, so to the user it appears like an ONLINE System. Line Interactive UPS offers enhanced power protection over the basic Offline designs by providing additional line conditioning.
ONLINE UPS An ONLINE UPS is the one in which the inverter always supplies power to the protected load and hence the same quality of power is ensured all the time. When mains supply is present, the inverter derives its power from thee mains supplied rectifier and the backup batteries are also kept in charged state. When the mains fail, the source of DC power for the inverter section shifts to the battery without any breaks whatsoever in the output to the Inverter. It also bears all the vagaries and noise borne out of the mains supply and insulates the secure bus supply from it. An ONLINE UPS is especially usefully for sensitive and critical equipment's/devices.

What is the Application of Inverter?

Inverters are suitable only for basic lighting, Fans and TV, it cannot be used for Computer system or any other critical load such as Printers, Electronic devices since the system may reboot during change over due to high change over time.

What is the Application of UPS?

UPS can be used for critical load such as Computer systems, Printers and any other electronic devices where Re-booting is not acceptable and the fast change over time will cover the time gap between mains fail and change over to battery.

In general what kind of application do UPS perform when there is power failure?

Traditionally UPS can perform the following functions:

  1. Absorb relatively small power surges.
  2. Smooth out noisy power sources.
  3. Continue to provide power to equipment during line sags.
  4. Provide power for some time after a blackout has occurred.

In addition, some UPS or Online UPS/software combinations provide the following functions:

  1. Automatic shutdown of equipment during long power outages.
  2. Monitoring and logging of the status of the power supply.
  3. Display the Voltage/Current draw of the equipment.
  4. Restart equipment after a long power outage.
  5. Display the voltage currently on the line.
  6. Provide alarms on certain error conditions.
  7. Provide short circuit protection.

What does VA / KVA mean?

The output of a UPS or Power Conditioning product is measured in volt-amperes or VA (output voltage x output current). The term KVA refers to kilo-volt-amperes or VA x 1000

What is Apparent Power and Real power ?

Apparent Power are measure in terms of VA and Real Powers are measure in terms of Watts.

What is the wattage and VA relationship or Power Factor (PF)?

Real power (watts) / Apparent power (VA) = Power factor.

How are UPS capacity rated?

UPS manufacturers rate their UPS's in terms of apparent power (measured in VA). The real power (watts) that a UPS can provide is always less than this. It is vitally important when selecting a UPS that you determine how much real power (Watts) you need to provide, and make sure that the UPS can provide enough real power for your connected load. You will need to look in the manufacturer's specifications for the UPS you are considering to find the real power rating (in watts).

How do I size or rate my UPS requirement?

  • First you need to determine the load of the critical equipment to be protected or appliances which need to be operated in the event of a power failure.
  • To find the rating of equipment or appliance check the plate at the back of the equipment near the mains outlet.

 

  • It will usually be give a figure in watts (w) or Amps (A). If in Amps, multiply the line voltage 230 V by the figure given to arrive at a VA (Volt-Amp) rating. In case if the rating is given in watts convert it to VA by multiplying by 0.8.
  • Add all the VA rating of equipment and appliances and add additional 25% for cushion, which is what UPS rating or capacity you would be requiring for your home or office.

What factor should I consider when selecting UPS ?

  • Always select capacity of UPS at least 25 % extra for future expansion.
  • Select right battery sizing as per backup requirement, do not under size or over size.
  • Before installation of UPS get your installation site verified by qualified technician.
  • Reliability of product
  • Customer service and backup support
  • Technology and features.
  • Price and performance.
  • Warranty

Can I over load my UPS above its rated capacity?

Certainly over loading of UPS is not advised, always apply load below rated capacity of UPS. If over load is applied it may damage the UPS. If UPS is supported with auto shutdown feature, on sensing over load condition then UPS will automatically shut down safely with out any damage.

How far can I keep my inverter / UPS from my batteries?

It is always recommended to keep the distance between cables and inverter / UPS has short as possible. This will help your batteries to perform at optimum level without any losses. The cables that come with the inverter are generally rated or good for up to four feet. If you plan to install you UPS/ inverter above four feet, you must change the lead wire to a larger gauge cable to decrease resistance and losses.

What is the Low Voltage Alarm & Auto Shutdown?

The low voltage alarm feature will produce an alert sound when the DC source (Battery) falls below stipulated volts (typically between 10.8 to 10.5 V) and then automatic shutdown the power of the inverter / UPS when the voltage of the battery reduces below cut-off voltage. This is done to save your battery from deep discharge.

Can I use mixer, refrigerator, hair drier or water pump on HUPS?

We do not recommend above appliances to be used on HUPS, since the surge current is very high and it is not designed to handle such high surge current. Note that the HUPS isn't the only consideration with respect to startup surges. The battery must also be able to supply the surge power, and the cables must also be able to support the increased current without dropping the voltage too much. Considering above practical problem we do not recommended domestic HUPS for heavy load appliances.

How often must my UPS be serviced?

Any electronic equipment needs regular or annual maintenance or service. It is suggested that UPS equipment must be maintained proactively if it is to operate effectively when future power outrage occur. When UPS equipment is maintained reactively it defeats the purpose for which the UPS equipment was initially installed by increasing the risk of critical equipment to malfunction during unscheduled power failure.

What is a bypass of UPS and its function?

Bypass feature is a switch between the input and output of the device. It allows the routing or transfer of incoming power to the output directly bypassing all internal circuitry. This feature allows power to continue to flow to connected equipment if the UPS system encounters an internal error or overload condition. The bypass function uses the A/C supply power as its standby source of power and automatically by-pass quickly power to ensure that the connected equipment continues to operate without effecting its normal operation.

What is "SNMP"?

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a family of protocols that provide a means for monitoring and controlling networked devices. Computer vendors have built into some network devices, including some UPS models, network management capabilities so that you can query their status remotely, as well as allow the sending of alerts when a certain type of event occurs. These devices are usually referred to as "smart" devices.

What do I considering when I want to extended runtime or backup time for my UPS?

First and foremost to be considered to extend runtime of UPS is AH of the battery, which will be able to deliver the required runtime or backup. Next find out about the charger in your present UPS, charger is the device that supplies enough charging current to charge the batteries connected to your UPS system. When planning to extend present back up you should consider if the charging current is sufficient enough to charge the battery which you are going to connect to you UPS to enhance runtime / backup time.

One of the batteries has failed in my UPS battery bank, is it alright to replace just one battery?

If the batteries are less than six to twelve months old then the failure could be due to a manufacturing, poor workman ship or material fault. In this instance the failed battery can be replaced after confirmation by testing the whole battery bank and by giving equalization charging. In general once the batteries are over twelve months old, the failure is more likely to be due to age, environment or usage and the whole bank should be replaced or partial replaced can be done if replacing batteries are of same aged(approximately) , model, brand and Ah capacity. Failure to replace the whole bank could result in the new battery not being charged properly and your load being at risk if any or all of the older batteries fail.